Roles of Vitamin B in Pregnancy

2 Parts of the Autonomic Nervous System

Dysautonomia - Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction
Would you like to tell us about a lower price? The most common vitamin deficiency is that of riboflavin and results in cataracts, failing vision, watery eyes and uncontrollable eczema. Feed Me Seymore , but this time Feed me information and knowledge , please! Researchers identified a brain circuit that controls neuron development in the adult brain. There is an explicit order in which operations occur and in general the results of one action are known before a next action is considered. Sympathetic Nervous System is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. Pruning is influenced by environmental factors and is widely thought to represent learning.

Cardiovascular System Anatomy

Human Brain - Neuroscience - Cognitive Science

The function of this sphincter is to close of the end of the esophagus and trap food in the stomach. The stomach is a muscular sac that is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, just inferior to the diaphragm. In an average person, the stomach is about the size of their two fists placed next to each other. This major organ acts as a storage tank for food so that the body has time to digest large meals properly. The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes that continue the digestion of food that began in the mouth.

It is located just inferior to the stomach and takes up most of the space in the abdominal cavity. The entire small intestine is coiled like a hose and the inside surface is full of many ridges and folds. These folds are used to maximize the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. The liver is a roughly triangular accessory organ of the digestive system located to the right of the stomach, just inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the small intestine. The liver weighs about 3 pounds and is the second largest organ in the body.

The liver has many different functions in the body, but the main function of the liver in digestion is the production of bile and its secretion into the small intestine.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just posterior to the liver. The gallbladder is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion of subsequent meals. The pancreas is a large gland located just inferior and posterior to the stomach. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods. The large intestine is a long, thick tube about 2. It is located just inferior to the stomach and wraps around the superior and lateral border of the small intestine.

The large intestine absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients. Feces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal. The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself.

The six primary processes of the digestive system include:. The first function of the digestive system is ingestion, or the intake of food. The mouth is responsible for this function, as it is the orifice through which all food enters the body. Read the article How to measure the pH of your soil to learn how. There is another compound that can help quickly with a calcium deficiency: It dissolves easily in water and is therefore easily absorbed by roots.

Other products to consider are liquid calcium and liquid lime, which roots can also take in very fast. One teaspoon of hydrated lime per gallon of water is perfect for fast-acting uptake of calcium. Another option is to mix in dolomitic limestone with your planting mix.

This will help over a greater amount of time, rather than just being a quick fix. These products can be bought at this online grow shop. Fixing a calcium deficiency is a crucial piece of knowledge for any hydroponic grower, since they happen much more commonly in this case. As long as your water has more than ppm of dissolved solids, then calcium deficiency should not be a problem for you.

The pH level also comes into play with a calcium deficiency in a hydro setup. If the pH level is outside the range of 6. Flush out your system with fresh water that has the proper pH level as well as a boost of nutrients to restore the balance.

Calcium and lime in their liquid forms work well for fast absorption into the roots. Try using one teaspoon of hydrated lime per gallon of water and feed that to your plants. You will quickly see the results. Otherwise, you will end up dealing with another nutrient deficiency straight away! Get your nutrients at my favorite online grow shop. This will help the soil become a more ideal pH level - between 6.

You can use dolomitic lime, garden lime, fish bones, seashell, or ground up egg shells to accomplish this and make sure your soil has plenty of calcium for a longer period of time. Another option for outdoor growers is using gypsum or calcium sulfate wiki. Long-Term Depression is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

Programmed Cell Death is the death of a Cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program. Concussions injuries - Blood Brain Barrier Frontal Lobe Disorder is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma. UCLA researchers have developed the first map of gene regulation in human neurogenesis, the process by which neural stem cells turn into brain cells and the cerebral cortex expands in size. Chromosomal folding patterns affect how genetic information is encoded.

For older adults, a better diet may prevent brain shrinkage. People who eat a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts and fish may have bigger brains Natural Defenses Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from Neural Stem Cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem cells.

Neurogenesis occurs during embryogenesis in all animals and is responsible for producing all the neurons of the organism. Prior to the period of neurogenesis, neural stem cells first multiply until the correct number of progenitor cells is achieved. Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells.

Ependyma is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system CNS. It is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid CSF , and is shown to serve as a reservoir for neuroregeneration.

How do adult brain circuits regulate new neuron production? Researchers identified a brain circuit that controls neuron development in the adult brain. It runs from near the front of the brain back to the Hippocampus , a learning- and memory-related structure.

Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus occurs throughout adult life and supports the hippocampus's crucial functions in storing and retrieving memories.

Genesis of new neurons does not stop at birth or even in childhood. In a few select areas of the brain, it can continue throughout adulthood, and is believed to be vitally important for certain forms of learning and memory, and in mood regulation.

Older adults grow just as many new brain cells as young people. DNA Repair Astrocytes as neural stem cells in the adult brain. In the adult mammalian brain, bona fide neural stem cells were discovered in the subventricular zone SVZ , the largest neurogenic niche lining the striatal wall of the lateral ventricles of the brain. Astonishingly, these GFAP-expressing progenitors display stem-cell-like features both in vivo and in vitro. Throughout life SVZ astrocytes give rise to interneurons and oligodendrocyte precursors, which populate the olfactory bulb and the white matter, respectively.

The role of the progenies of SVZ astrocytes has not been fully elucidated, but some evidence indicates that the new neurons play a role in olfactory discrimination, whereas oligodendrocytes contribute to myelinate white matter tracts.

In this chapter, we describe the astrocytic nature of adult neural stem cells, their organization into the SVZ and some of their molecular and genetic characteristics. Neurotrophin are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.

They belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that are capable of signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating programmed cell death - thus allowing the neurons to survive. Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells, to form neurons.

Cognitive Reserve describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain. The mind's resilience is evaluated behaviorally, whereas the neuropathological damage is evaluated histologically, although damage may be estimated using blood-based markers and imaging methods.

These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength. Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.

This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner. Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine. Perineuronal Net are specialized extracellular matrix structures responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain.

Extracellular Matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Hemispherectomy is a very rare surgical procedure in which one cerebral hemisphere half of the brain is removed, disconnected, or disabled.

Cognitive Module - Modularity of Mind Mild Cognitive Impairment is a brain function syndrome involving the onset and evolution of cognitive impairments beyond those expected based on the age and education of the individual, but which are not significant enough to interfere with their daily activities.

Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue. Inflammatory Response System Inflammation Neuroimmunology is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases.

Their release has an effect on the behaviour of cells around them. IL-2 Receptor is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Meditation - Brain Food - Consuming Knowledge Neuron Pruning is similar to a computer when a person deletes old computer files. Brain cells are programed to die if not used, which makes room for more cell growth. Changing Old Habits programming Pruning Decision Trees is a technique in machine learning that reduces the size of decision trees by removing sections of the tree that provide little power to classify instances.

Pruning reduces the complexity of the final classifier, and hence improves predictive accuracy by the reduction of overfitting. A study of nearly young people ages 8 to 22 found that the ability to control impulses, stay on task and make good decisions increased steadily over that span as the brain remodeled its information pathways to become more efficient. The finding helps explain why these abilities, known collectively as executive function, take so long to develop fully.

This is mostly because people don't get a high quality education in order for this natural process to be effective. The human brain is organized into large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood and adolescence. However, it remains unknown whether the underlying white matter architecture is similarly refined during development, potentially allowing for improvements in executive function.

Structural network modules become more segregated by learning valuable knowledge , with weaker connections between modules and stronger connections within modules. Evolving modular topology facilitates global network efficiency and is driven by Learning that helps strengthen the hub edges present both within and between modules.

Critically, both modular segregation and network efficiency are associated with enhanced executive performance and mediate the improvement of executive functioning with age. Together, results delineate a process of structural network maturation that supports executive function in youth. Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax.

Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system CNS.

We are born with billion neurons in our brain and spinal cord. During the early years following birth, humans manufacture an estimated , neurons per minute, and then spend the next few years wiring them together.

We also lose thousands of neurons everyday, but we have the ability to make the remaining neurons form connections with beneficial counterparts. It seems that some neurons never die, giving us the ability to hold on to memories that are important to us. Even as we grow old into adulthood, the human brain makes hundreds of new neurons everyday all through life, mostly in the hippocampus , a key region for memory.

Old Memories are not deleted even when they are not recalled for years. Amnesia does not mean memories are deleted, just the files have been misplaced. Responsibility Maintaining our physical and mental wellbeing is one of our most important responsibilities.

But like all things, we have to learn how this responsibility is performed. If you're not using it, you're losing it. The Brain is a machine that needs maintenance. Maintaining skills and abilities at a proficient level needs exercise. Just like all muscles, muscles become weak when you stop using them. And neuron connections in the brain become weaker when you stop using them. So what would be the perfect brain exercises that you can do to maximize your cognitive ability and stay sharp?

What are the most effective and efficient ways to maintain optimum physical and mental wellbeing? Caudate Nucleus plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well, including procedural learning , associative learning, and executive functions e.

The caudate is also one of the brain structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico—basal ganglia—thalamic loop. Reading is extremely important, but just don't read anything. People who tell others to read anything are ignorant, and they are misleading you.

Don't just read anything. Consume the most valuable knowledge and information that you can find. Learn the right things at the right time. In order to become more knowledgeable about yourself and the world around you, you need to carefully choose what to read, and know how to apply new knowledge and information to the knowledge and information you have gained in previous years of your life. And you also must understand that most of what you read and hear is not relevant.

Comprehension is extremely valuable skill, but that skill is wasted if you never read valuable knowledge and information. People don't have enough knowledge and information that would give them the ability to use the full power of the human brain.

MRI's show that only certain areas of the brain show activity during certain actions. The adult brain makes new neurons, but only in very restricted areas.

For example, the hippocampus of an adult rat makes between 5,, new neurons each day. So perhaps some of the adverse effects of stress are related to fewer brain cells being created in the hippocampus. Did you know that people with O Blood Type have more gray matter in their brain? Hey you never know, better safe then sorry. Either way it's still an education problem. Toxins and Child Development Endocrine Disruptor are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine or hormone systems.

These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors.

Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder , cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body including limbs ; breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.

This occurs in the background of a cell when potentials are produced without the nerve stimulation of an action potential , and are due to the inherently random nature of synapses. These random potentials have similar time courses as excitatory postsynaptic potentials EPSPs and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials IPSPs , yet they lead to variable neuronal responses.

The variability is due to differences in the discharge times of action potentials. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor are chemicals that inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family.

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential. Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Donepezil is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Even for people who have been very sedentary , exercise improves cognition and helps people perform better on things like planning, scheduling, multitasking and working memory.

Increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus. Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with chronic renal failure CRF , and this may be one of the factors underlying the degenerative processes. NMDA Receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. It is activated when glutamate and glycine or D-serine bind to it, and when activated it allows positively charged ions to flow through the cell membrane.

The NMDA receptor is very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function. Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid.

Diploid organisms have the same loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes, except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a chromosomal sex-determination system. If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous, and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous.

A well maintained car is reliable and hardly ever breaks down. If you put in good gas , it runs better and goes faster. If you constantly make improvements to your car by learning about all the new technological advancements that are available, then your brain, or car, will be a high performance machine with more capabilities.

Brain Memory Capacity - Spatial Intelligence "If your brain becomes Hard Wired and Cemented in Place, that means you have stopped learning, which is very dangerous in todays world, physically and mentally. There is a lot we can learn from blind people, deaf people and anyone with a disability. We already know how to manipulate stem cells manually, but one day soon we will be able to tell the stem cells in our bodies to repair things that are causing us problems. We can already manipulate atoms into a language , so it's just a matter of time that we will discover the language of our cells, and be able to communicate with them and give them special instructions when needed.

Feed Me Seymore , but this time Feed me information and knowledge , please! The brain processes Billion bits of information a second. The average "clock speed" of neurons in the brain is a mere firings per second. But is transmission speed the same thing as processing speed? Brain processes data no faster than 60 bits per second? The brain processes around 0. The human body sends 11 million bits per second to the brain for processing, yet the conscious mind seems to be able to process only 50 bits per second?

It appears that a tremendous amount of compression is taking place if 11 million bits are being reduced to less than Note that the discrepancy between the amount of information being transmitted and the amount of information being processed is so large that any inaccuracy in the measurements is insignificant. What Each Human Senses Processes? Brain exercises should also be designed in the same way.

So the brain exercise will also be a test as well as a quick way to run a systems check. So what Brain Functions do you think you need to exercise and check?

Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

Proteins , the components of our body that execute, control and organize basically all functions in our cells, are made out of strings of amino acids , which -- like an origami -- are folded into specific and complex three-dimensional structures according to their desired functions.

However, since folding and maintaining of such structures is highly sensitive to cellular or environmental stress , proteins can potentially misfold or form clumps aggregates.

Such undesired protein waste can be toxic for cells and may even lead to cell death. Because several human neurodegenerative diseases are known to be linked to an accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates , basic science aimed to understand how cells remove cellular garbage is elementary for designing strategies for a potential prevention or cure of such disorders. Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life. Among their many jobs, they carry oxygen, build tissue, copy DNA for the next generation, and coordinate events within and between cells.

Protein nutrient are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

During human digestion , proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine.

There are five dispensable amino acids which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine.

There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress. These six are arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline and tyrosine. Humans need the essential amino acids in certain ratios. Some protein sources contain amino acids in a more or less 'complete' sense.

This has given rise to various ranking systems for protein sources, as described in the article. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: Vegetarians and vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant proteins. It is commonly believed that athletes should consume a higher-than-normal protein intake to maintain optimal physical performance. Too much protein can be bad for your health, especially protein from certain foods.

Our bodies make roughly 20, different kinds of proteins. Some take the shape of molecular sheets. Others are sculpted into fibers, boxes, tunnels, even scissors. Every protein in nature is encoded by a gene. With that stretch of DNA as its guide, a cell assembles a corresponding protein from building blocks known as amino acids. Selecting from twenty or so different types, the cell builds a chain of amino acids. That chain may stretch dozens, hundreds or even thousands of units long.

Once the cell finishes, the chain folds on itself , typically in just a few hundredths of a second. Proteins fold because each amino acid has an electric charge.

Parts of the protein chain are attracted to one another while other parts are repelled. Some bonds between the amino acids will yield easily under these forces; rigid bonds will resist. Protein Atlas Serum is an amber, watery fluid, rich in proteins , that separates out when blood coagulates.

Whey is the serum or watery part of milk that is separated from the curd in making cheese. Protein isoform is an ambiguous term describing either several different forms of protein coded from the same gene, or proteins with amino acid sequence and functional similarities, even when they are products of different genes. Protein Domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and tertiary structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

Each domain forms a compact three-dimensional structure and often can be independently stable and folded. Many proteins consist of several structural domains. One domain may appear in a variety of different proteins. Molecular evolution uses domains as building blocks and these may be recombined in different arrangements to create proteins with different functions.

Domains vary in length from between about 25 amino acids up to amino acids in length. Apolipoprotein are proteins that bind lipids oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol to form lipoproteins. They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in water. However, because of their detergent-like amphipathic properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules such as phospholipids can surround the lipids, creating the lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation i.

Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues. Ribonucleoprotein is a nucleoprotein that contains RNA, i. Such a combination can also be referred to as a protein-RNA complex. These complexes play an integral part in a number of important biological functions that include DNA replication, regulating gene expression and regulating the metabolism of RNA.

Transmembrane Protein is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached. Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane.

They frequently undergo significant conformational changes to move a substance through the membrane. Transmembrane proteins are polytopic proteins that aggregate and precipitate in water. They require detergents or nonpolar solvents for extraction, although some of them beta-barrels can be also extracted using denaturing agents. The other type of integral membrane protein is the integral monotopic protein that is also permanently attached to the cell membrane but does not pass through it.

GDNF is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor.

Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. Initially identified as the genetic factor of speech disorder in KE family, its gene is the first gene discovered associated with speech and language. The gene is located on chromosome 7 7q31, at the SPCH1 locus , and is expressed in fetal and adult brain, heart, lung and gut.

Ras subfamily is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs. All Ras protein family members belong to a class of protein called small GTPase, and are involved in transmitting signals within cells cellular signal transduction. Ras is the prototypical member of the Ras superfamily of proteins, which are all related in 3D structure and regulate diverse cell behaviours. When Ras is 'switched on' by incoming signals, it subsequently switches on other proteins, which ultimately turn on genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival.

Mutations in ras genes can lead to the production of permanently activated Ras proteins. As a result, this can cause unintended and overactive signaling inside the cell, even in the absence of incoming signals.

Because these signals result in cell growth and division, overactive Ras signaling can ultimately lead to cancer. For this reason, Ras inhibitors are being studied as a treatment for cancer and other diseases with Ras overexpression.

More than 30 percent of all human cancers — including 95 percent of pancreatic cancers and 45 percent of colorectal cancers — are driven by mutations of the RAS family of genes.

Proteopathy refers to a class of diseases in which certain proteins become structurally abnormal, and thereby disrupt the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body. Often the proteins fail to fold into their normal configuration ; in this misfolded state, the proteins can become toxic in some way a gain of toxic function or they can lose their normal function. They are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and are less common elsewhere, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.

Folding Proteins Welcome to Fold it!! Proteins are the molecular machines and building blocks of life. Modeling Software engineering - Competitive Programming Biomolecular Structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function. What Web Browsers and Proteins have in Common. Researchers discover molecular 'add-ons' that customize protein interfaces. Researchers discovered tiny bits of molecular material -- which they named " add-ons " -- on the outer edges of the protein interface that customize what a protein can do.

They chose the name because the add-ons customize the interface between proteins the way software add-ons customize a web interface with a user. Build Blocks of Life Protein Synthesis. Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid, for example AUG adenine-uracil-guanine is the code for methionine.

Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the genetic code, with some amino acids specified by more than one codon. Protein Biosynthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA mRNA , aminoacylation of transfer RNA tRNA , co-translational transport, and post-translational modification.

Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps. On the role of anionic lipids in charged protein interactions with membraness Protein Domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and tertiary structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

Domains vary in length from between about 25 amino acids up to amino acids in length[citation needed]. The shortest domains, such as zinc fingers, are stabilized by metal ions or disulfide bridges.

Domains often form functional units, such as the calcium-binding EF hand domain of calmodulin. Because they are independently stable, domains can be "swapped" by genetic engineering between one protein and another to make chimeric proteins.

Protein Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification of proteins in which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase by the addition of a covalently bound phosphate group. Phosphorylation alters the structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated, deactivated, or modifying its function. The reverse reaction of phosphorylation is called dephosphorylation, and is catalyzed by protein phosphatases. Protein kinases and phosphatases work independently and in a balance to regulate the function of proteins.

The amino acids most commonly phosphorylated are serine , threonine , and tyrosine in eukaryotes, and histidine in prokaryotes, which play important and well-characterized roles in signaling pathways and metabolism.

However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated, including arginine , lysine , and cysteine. Protein is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural component of body tissues and is used within many biological processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes, antibodies to help us fight infection as well as DNA the building blocks to life.

Neuroscience - Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.